1942: Pamphlet

White Rose

Since the conquest of Poland, 300,000 Jews have been murdered in this country in the most bestial way… The German people slumber on in dull, stupid sleep and encourage the fascist criminals. Each wants to be exonerated of guilt, each one continues on his way with the most placid, calm conscience. But he cannot be exonerated; he is guilty, guilty, guilty!

— 2nd leaflet of the White Rose (1942)

Founded in 1942 by Hans Scholl, a medical student at the University of Munich, his sister Sophie, Christoph Probst, Willi Graf, and Alexander Schmorell, the White Rose was one of a handful of German groups that protested Fascism during its ascension in Germany. Largely a student organization, the organization had members in Hamburg, Freiburg, Berlin, and Vienna. They distributed secretively mimeographed pamphlets and advocated sabotage. “We will not be silent. We are your bad conscience. The White Rose will not leave you in peace!”

White Rose members were eventually arrested and executed by the Nazi regime.

Image: Monument to the White Rose in front of the Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich

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